A. Integrated Indicators of Sustainable Development Harmonized with Basic Indicators of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
The National Plans of Actions as to nature protection which basic propositions are common for all the countries (such Plan of Actions for the countries of Central and Eastern Europe was approved at the conference “Environment for Europe” in 1993, in Lucerne, Switzerland) include basic principles for determining ecologic problems of highest priority as well as the basis for their efficient solution. Development of integrated indicators of the environment state (sustainable development) connected directly with available system of statistical accounts is a component of the work on creation of the National Plans of Actions.
The system of the environment protection indicators, being in force in Ukraine, is based on the system of statistical accounting developed in the 70’s. The main task of this field of statistics consisted in providing the organs of administration and planning with information to determine strategy and tactics of nature utilization and environment protection, measures on regulation of the effect of economical activity on the environment.
The developed form of statistical accounting has provided the collection of data about the most acute problems connected with anthropogenic effect on separate environment components and was assumed as a basis for creation of such a system of indicators:
In most sections of the statistical accounting one can distinguish six groups of indicators:
It is evident that resource character of the indicators of the environment condition does not meet contemporary requirements for formation of the system of sustainable development of Ukraine. The system is based on principles of International UNO Conference on the problems of environment and development. Introduction of integrated indicators of sustainable development proves to be urgent and this could allow the coordinated consideration of the problem of the environment condition, existance and socio-economical development of the country.
In a number of classification approaches main attention is accentuated on the indicators of anthropogenic influence on the environment and indicators of the environment response to certain influence. Integrated indicators of sustainable development in Ukraine (Table) are presented.
These indicators being compared with international system of World Resources database indices, one can make a conclusion that the latter system is to more extent oriented to indicators of the environment response to anthropogenic influence (that is especially illustrated by the section of indicators “Preservation of biodiversity”) as well as the indices of economic system reaction to nature-protection expenditures which is a necessary component in development of the sustainable development policy.
Thus, the available system of statistical accounting in the field of environment protection is not oriented to the estimation of ecosystems response to technogenic influence for concrete ecosystems and groups of population. The system true volumes of pollutants and cost indicators demonstrating how an enterprise or organs of government keep to nature protection laws and planned parameters of making nature-protection arrangements. From viewpoint of economical indices the system of statistical accounting in the field of the environment protection mainly operates by mediated indices of the environment condition (capital investments to environment protection). It is necessary to introduce integral indices of direct action to reflect ecologo-economical processes at the national level in accordance with international requirements (specific weight of the cost of products and services for nature protection purposes in the total cost of the gross national product, %).
The Table presents classification of integrated indices of sustainable development which are proposed to be introduced to the national system of indices. The above approach is coordinated with the system of indicators of sustainable development of Ukraine (ecological, social and economical categories of indicators have been distinguished). It also distinguishes the indicators of the effect on the environment, indicators of environment condition and those of necessary nature-protection arrangements.