Increase of the international cooperation activity is of particular importance for carrying out the tasks of the National Program related to the Dnipro river as having an influence on Europe and the whole world. The international cooperation regarding ecological improvement of the Dnipro basin is carrying out by the Ministry of Ecological Safety in the following directions:
A lot of countries plan to help Ukraine in the ecology problems of the Dnipro river. These countries are Canada, USA, the Great Britain, Japan, Netherlands, Finland as well as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Global Ecological Fund.
Environmental Management Development in Ukraine (the Dnipro basin region) Program of Canadian Technical Assistance
A declaration on technical cooperation between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of Canada for executing a program of environment management development for the Dnipro basin was signed in Kyiv on March 31, 1994. Recognizing the problem of rehabilitation of the polluted Dnipro system as a most important priority for the Government of Ukraine and acknowledging that the natural environment protection is of exceptional importance for Ukraine, the Governments of Ukraine and Canada announced the establishment of a technical assistance program aimed at strengthening the environmental management capacity in Ukraine carrying out demonstration projects aimed at reducing levels of pollution of the Dnipro river
Successful and effective implementation of the Program in 1994-1997 (over 40 projects valued 3,2 million Canadian dollars), positive and practical results and permanent contacts with governmental and scientific Canadian structures has become the foundation for the following joint work. That’s way the Government of Canada and the Canadian International Development Research Agency grant a financial assistance valued 2,6 million Canadian dollars through the International Development Research Center (IDRC). This assistance was granted to the Ministry of the Economics and the Ministry of the Ecological Safety for the special using of the Environmental Management Development in Ukraine (the Dnipro basin region) during 1997-2000.
The International Development Research Center (IDRC) was chosen to be the Executing Agency for the Program’s implementation. IDRC was recognized at the UNO Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992 as the best institution for creation of environmental programs.
The official partner in carrying out the Program was determined to be the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety as well as the Ministry of Economics and the Dnipro Rehabilitation Fund (from May 1998 the International Dnipro Fund). Numerous Ukrainian research institutes, local authorities, training centers, and environmental non-governmental organizations were invited to participate in this program.
The goal of the Program is the supporting and facilitating the execution of the reform process in Ukrainian institutions and organizations. These reforms are aimed to increasing the environmental protection activities, improving the economy and investment policy as well as increasing the ecological information level in Ukraine.
The Program includes three main component assistance parts. They are:
a) development of the environmental system management in the conditions of integration of ecological policy into economy reforms strategy;
b) effective measures on decreasing the pollution of the surface and underground waters through the demonstration projects system;
c) contemporary ecological and investment measures for the transition to the market economics.
Particular objectives of the Program are the following:
The Program will initiate projects on realization of the goals and tasks established by the National Program of the Dnipro Basin Ecological Rehabilitation and the Drinking Water Quality Improvement.
As was defined above, The Ukrainian Management Committee manages 2,6 million Canadian dollars from the total sum of the grants valued 4,2 million Canadian dollars. The Committee was created by the joint decree of the Ministry of the Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety and the Ministry of Economics of Ukraine. The minister of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety Shevchuk V. J. is at the head of the Committee. The members of the Committee are heads of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety, The Ministry of Economics. The other members are the State Committee of Water Resources, the State Committee of Hydrology and Meteorology, the State Committee of Public Servicing, the State Committee of Geology as well as the International Dnipro Fund, National Science Academy and the other science and research institutes and organizations of Ukraine.
There are practically no analogs of such a trust, regarding the distributing finances of funds of the grants, in other programs of technical assistance to Ukraine. It gives the opportunity to the numerous scientists and specialists to take an active part in the Program instead of rendering technical assistance exceptionally by foreign specialists. A most acceptable form of the international ecological cooperation of the transitional period in the making of our state is a form of the international ecological cooperation that based on a total trust to Ukrainian side, on development of Ukrainian science and technical potential in conditions of the state financing.
The implementation of these purposes is doing through the series of projects that ought to have maximum effectiveness and minimum losses by the way of carrying out and implementation of the short-team measures. It helps to give a positive dependable result in the near future.
During 1998 Ukrainian Management Committee got near 150 proposals. The Committee considered all the proposals at the conferences as it has been planned and approved for financing 26 projects valued over 2,5 million Canadian dollars that consists over 100% of the finances has been set by the Program for researches and development. The Committee for the first time established the priority of quality and practical significance of the projects of the international technical assistance.
The results of Ukrainian-Canadian cooperation on the implementation of the Environment of the Dnipro Basin Management Program ought to be taken into account by the implementation of the National Program. They will be used in the normative, technical, designed documents as well as the educational programs.
The demonstration projects will function as practically working models, centers.
It is suppose that their implementation will be on by the way of modern techniques introduction, of drinking water providing, of purification of sewerage water and filtrates of municipal dumps, conducting environmental audits at industry enterprises. The results of the audits will definite small-investment management, technological and economic measures with the according ecological effect (“green technologies”).
Implementation of the projects of practical assistance in Zaporizhzhya is an example of the environmental problem solution in one of the most industrial centers of Ukraine.
The Zaporizhzhya region became a base for the following measures within the Program:
Implement of the project of the new waste treatment technologies of filtrates from the landfield placed at the Levanevsky, near Zaporizhzhya starts in accordance with the Program. The project realizes by the municipal authorities and science and research institutes and organizations of Zaporizhzhya and Kharkov.
After corresponding researches a pilot plant will be designed and installed for the purification of the landfield filtrates. At present the territory of the landfield is not provided with an anti-filter screen and special drainage system for removing leachate (over 200 thousand industrial and consumer waste are piled without preliminary trearment).
Implement of the project can demonstrate the opportunity of control of landfields for decreasing negative environmental influence. The project can popularize the gained experience over the regions of the country.
The other project helps to Vodocanal and Ukrvodproject (Ukrainian Water Project Committee) in Zaporizhzhya. It try to ground and to develop powers for production of organic and mineral fertilizers by treatment of sediment (deposite) from sewerage treatment facilities as well as lignin and gyps phosphate that accumulated in industrial dumps.
The big project will be implemented at one of the water supply station in Zaporizhzhya. Its goals are following:
The important aspect of the Program is implementation of the projects of conducting of ecological audit in Ukraine. The demonstrative ecological audit will be conducting at 13 enterprises of Zaporizhzhya, Cherkassy and Kyiv. The result will be carrying out the ecological programs of modernization and further development of small-investment management, technological and economic measures with the ecological effect on every enterprise. The result will be also carrying out regional recommendations on conducting ecological audit and ecologically pure works.
Carrying out the creation of the normative, methodical, material and technical base has started. The base is intended for introduction of method of biological testing into the system of the evaluation of state and of the control of the sources of pollution made by the toxic combinations in the Dnipro basin. The project that will be implemented in the Lower Dnipro region supposes the preparation of specialists of the municipal organizations of ecological safety.
The permanent consideration is giving to providing of state management organizations of Ukraine with highly skilled ecologists that can effectively solve the ecological problems of Ukraine, can give a right evaluation to possible negative consequences and avoid them according to the interests of successful development of economics spheres. While the projects implementing scores of Ukrainian managers, specialists and scientists will participate in training seminars or will be sent on business trips for training in the questions solved by the Program.
The important part of the Program structure is increasing of the scope of ecological information of the community by mass media. The Program also give a consideration to providing participation of public in environmental protection measures, providing development of concrete information of the goals and tasks of the National Program as well as the Ukrainian-Canadian cooperation Program.
So the electronic version of the National Atlas of Ukraine is creating in Ukraine for the first time according to the Program. The goal of the Atlas is spreading the newest spatial and temporary information about the natural resources as well as social, economic, ecological features of the development of Ukraine on the threshold of XXI century.
The Program implement is widely educating in mass media of Ukraine and Canada. Ukrainian specialists are shooting the series of the TV programs “the Green Studio”. It’s goal is lighting on the course of the National Program implementing and the Program’s contents. These TV programs are following:
“Ecological audit and the green technologies”, “Ecological monitoring and Dnipro information system”, and some others. The programs went on at UT-1, UT-2 studios and other studios during 1998. The series of video films on natural and reserve fund of the Dnipro basin are being prepared. The subject of the Program projects was showed in Ukraine Today Program in ÑIS (Concord of Independent States) as well as Ukrainian TV Studio in Canada.
Through this cooperation long-term contacts have been established between the Ukrainian and Canadian governmental authorities, research institutes, public and non-governmental environmental organizations. Also with the help of IDRC and for the solution of the concrete practical problems, long-term relationships have been established between Ukrainian organizations and the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
The Program implement, including financial aspects, is checking by the International Canadian Development Agency and by independent auditors. It is recognized that Program projects are implementing in the accordance with the Memorandum requires.
Effective implement of the Canadian Technical Assistance Program helps to improvement of the investment climate in Ukraine and also development of the Canadian and Ukrainian relationships. It was emphasized during the Prime Minister of Canada J. Chrétien visit.
Starting of implement of International the Dnipro River Ecological Improvement Program (Ukraine, Russia, Belorus) is supposed within the project of the Global Ecological Fund (GBF), named “Preparation of the strategy program for the Dnipro basin and ways of its implement”. The project is a result of development of Ukrainian, Russian and Belorussian cooperation in environmental protection sphere and implement of the Program of economic cooperation between Ukraine and Russian Federation in 1998-2007. Also the Project is supposed by the Cooperation Plan between the Ministry of the Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of Belorus Republic.
The initiative of the Project implement has started in January 1995. The plenipotentiaries of the Ministries of the Environmental Protection of Belorus Republic, Russian Federation and Ukraine have signed the Memorandum of the participants of the International Conference on the Problems of the Dnipro River Ecological Improvement. The Memorandum determines the necessity of joint efforts of three countries that develop the special International Program.
After consideration of the problem of the trilateral cooperation in the Dnipro river environmental sphere, the ministers of the environmental protection of Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine in July 1996 have confirmed their decision of the preliminary stage project preparation.
In 1998 three-year preparatory work at the expense of GEF and IDRC financing to a total value of 0,3 million dollars USA financing has been completed. The joint work of ministries, international, national experts, and other organizations helps to carry out the project proposal “Preparation of the strategy program for the Dnipro basin and ways of its implement”. It was approved by the Council of the Global Ecological Fund in 1998.
The International the Dnipro basin Ecological Improvement Program (Ukraine, Russia, Belorus) has first total value of 7 million dollars USA during the period of 1999-2001. The Program helps to implement the complex of measures for decreasing negative influence of the environmental pollution to the people health and the ecological state of the Dnipro river. It also helps to provide stable using its resources and to keep its biological variety. The Program will give the opportunity for the basin countries to provide implementing the coordination and cooperation principles in accordance to approached agreements.
The government of the USA gives the considerable technical assistance in the solution of the problem of the Dnipro river environmental improvement. It does it through the Environmental Protection Agency (ERA), USA, by the financial supporting of the International Development Agency of the USA. Since 1994 the work for the improvement of monitoring, of surface water quality, of laboratory analyses, of modeling, and management has been concentrated on the Kaniv reservoir.
EPA and the Ministry of the Ecological Protection of Ukraine have been convinced of the use of their cooperation and change of the technical and organizational experience. They have concentrated their further efforts on the Dnipro estuary. The estuary is a very valuable ecological system that is the link between the Dnipro river and the Black Sea. It is of great importance for the solving of the ecological problem of the Black Sea basin, but nevertheless it has been disregarded by the international cooperation.
Two main goals of this work are the following:
1. To increase the realization of the quality water state and the ecological safety in the complicated ecologically part of the Dnipro basin.
2. To distribute the experience of education and using of the technologies that gained during the implement of the Program of water quality of the Kaniv reservoir. The stuff of the local organizations of the Ministry of the Environmental Protection ought to support management decisions. The corresponding equipment ought to be taken by them.
It is supposed that by this approach the significant many-sided effect can be taken.
The report of the joint work between the Ministry of the Environmental Protection of Ukraine and the Environmental Protection Agency of the USA by the financial supporting of the International Development Agency of the USA was signed in October 1997. The report intends to implement the project “Evaluation and management of water quality in the Dnipro estuary” in 1997-1998. Its total value is 0,25 million dollars.
Both of the side pledges to further the implement of the efforts for the increase of surface water quality and of ecological state of the Dnipro river and its estuary. The work contents are important not only for the environmental improvement of Ukraine, but for supporting the two-side cooperation within the Environmental Working Group of the Support Economic Cooperation Committee, too (“Commission of Kuchma-Gor).
The project state has not been terminated, because its financing has been stop on summer 1998.
In 1998 the Ministry of the Environmental Protection conducted the work for getting the Japan Governmental Grant for financing the immediate technical assistance projects. Also the Ministry considered the financial opportunities of carrying out the General Plan on the waste treatment of concentration and of sewage water purification that accompany ore output and concentration in Krivyi Rig. Its expected value is from 2 to 5 million. The General Plan is the component part of the special project of sewage water purification in Krivyi Rig within the National Program.
Governmental and local authorities bear the main economic responsibility for the implement of the National Program and environmental protection projects. The foreign financing is an important and essential addition to the resources of Ukraine in the environmental sphere.
International cooperation related to the ecological improvement of the Dnipro river is implemented with using the contemporary ways of financing of the environmental protection activities. They are the following:
Allocation of preferential credits with deferment of payments and low per cent of its serving;
Joint financing the projects by international financial organizations, organizations- donors, and significant grants of the governmental and local authorities;
Joining grants of foreign international organizations and of local and governmental authorities for implement pilot projects for the further distribution all over the country.
It is a complicated ecological situation in several settlements and a result of proposals of the interested ministries, centers, regional and municipal organizations that initiates preparatory work for getting credits, including the preferential ones (for the first time their total value is 135 million dollars). The credits were got from international financial organizations for reconstruction of municipal and industrial treatment facilities in Krivyi Rig, Zaporizhzhya and Kyiv as in the most polluted cities.
In conformity with instructions of the President of Ukraine and the Prime Minister of Ukraine, the National Ukrainian Agency of Reconstruction and European Integration as well as the Ministry of Economics, the Ministry of Finances, the Ministry of environmental Safety has determined the priority projects for Ukraine. Implement of the projects could be expedient at the expense of credits of the Japan Official Development Assistance Program.
The Prime Minister of Ukraine has approved the priority of implement of the purification sewage waters project in Krivyi Rig regarding distribution of grants of ODR (Official Development Assistance) within the National Program. It corresponds to the decree of the President of Ukraine “On the ecological and economic experiment in Krivyi Rig, Dniprodzerzhinsk and Zaporizhzhya” (11 June 1997, No. 235/97). It was the beginning of the implement of the National Program, marked by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
During 1998 the executive committee of the municipal council of Krivyi Rig prepared technical and economic substantiation (TEO) of the expedience of credit funds getting for financing the project. The Ministry of the Environmental Safety has affirmed the priority of implement of the purification sewage waters project in Krivyi Rig within the National Program. That’s why the Ministry confirm the TEO and proposed to transfer it for further consideration to the Government of Japan for financing within the Japan Official Development Assistance Program in 1999-2000.
In accordance with the decree of the President of Ukraine, the Ministry of the Environmental Safety, the Dnopropetrovsk regional governmental administration, Krivyi Rig municipal executive committee, the Ministry of Finances, the Ministry of Economics, the Ministry of Industry and other ministries and centers consider the list of the immediate measures on going out from the ecological crisis in Krivyi Rig. The total value of these measures will be 500 million of gryvna during the period till 2005. Corresponding normative and legal base for financial supporting of the project’s implement is carrying out. That is a result of the resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “On stabilization of the social and economic situation in the Krivyi Rig iron-stone basin” (23.11 98 No. 1846).
Reconstruction of the municipal and industrial treatment facilities in accordance to sewage waters purification project is an important component part of these measures. Implement of the measures in 1999 helps to improvement of water ecological situation in Krivbas (the Krivyi Rig Iron Stone Basin).
Pursuant to preliminary consultations with the representatives of the official organizations of Japan, the opportunity of getting the credits in 1999 during 40 years at 0,75 per cent of annual income, including 10 years of preferential period is quite real.
In 1998 the Cabinet of the Ministers of Ukraine proposed to prepare the project’s list for financing within the Japan Official Development Assistance Program for Ukraine during next years. National Ukrainian Agency of Reconstruction and European Integration, the Ministry of the Environmental Safety, the interested ministries, centers, regional and municipal organizations prepared the list of prospective projects for financing within the Program to transfer it for further consideration to the Government of Japan. There are several constructions as immediate environmental protection measures included into the list. They are the following:
Beside that, to implement the instruction of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the Ministry of the Environmental Protection in 1999 considered and supported the proposition of the Dnipropetrovsk the South machine-building plant. The proposition includes the project of treatment facilities building at the plant into the prospective project list in the part of waste control of the Japan Official Development Assistance Program. The project is one of the immediate environment protection measures of the National program.
In case of positive decision of the Japan Government that related to credits for special financing the mentioned projects, municipal government organizations ought to provide the development of technical and economic grounds. For the ground financing the Ministry of Industry of Japan is working up a question of the creation of a responsible fund.
The Ministry of the Environmental Protection and other interested organizations has supported the proposal of the Zaporizhzhya regional state authority. It has proposed to get a credit from the European Bank for Development and Reconstruction (EBDR) and to give the state guarantee for receiving the credit. The credit is for the reconstruction of treatment facilities in Zaporizhzhya.
The lack of the sufficient powers for the biological purification of sewage waters of the light bank part of the city is one of the main ecological goal of Zaporizhzhya. Only 200 thousand m 3 from 360 thousand m 3 in 24 hours is purifying. It polluted the Dnipro river. The lack of sediment dehydrating facilities was the cause of the sharp increase of the subsoil waters. It also can lead to soil dislocation near Balabino and Kungushum.
The Zaporizhzhya regional state authority, the Municipal council and the State Committee of Public Servicing in October 1995 appeal the EBDR to consider the capacity of a loan. The goal of the loan is the intensification of building of the object, development of the water supply and sewerage system of the city by using more effective equipment and technology as well as by decrease of water losses, drink water supply and of electrical energy losses.
The analysis of the state of water supply and sewerage system was the basis of a program and of carrying out of technical and economic grounds for a project in 1997. The analysis was worked by DKP “Vodokanal”, EBRD and skilled foreign consulting organizations. The project total value is 48,67 million dollars USA, including at the expense of the loan of EBRD 30 million dollars. The own funds of DKP “Vodokanal” is 12,1 million dollars, the funds of the Zaporizhzhya municipal state authority is 3,0 million dollars. The funds of the other organizations and of the TACIS Program is 2.75 million dollars, the funds of state capital investment are 1,0 million dollars.
The Project was approved by the Credit Council of the EBRD in March 1998.
It is supposed that the reconstruction of the treatment facilities in Zaporizhzhya can provide the stopping the disposal of the significant quantity of sewage water into the Dnipro river. The reconstruction also can provide the increase of drinking water quality and ecological situation in the city.
Within the Memorandum on the interrelation between the Ministry of the Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety, the Environmental Agency of Denmark and the ministry of the Environment of Finland, the Demonstrative Project will be implement in Kyiv. The Project related to implement of the works on reconstruction of the sewerage collector in the 40-richcha Zhovtnya prospect. The Danish and Finnish sides guarantee the financial assistance in equal parts in 10 per cent from the project cost, it consists near 3 million dollars USA.
Kyiv municipal state authority on its part gives an order No. 1735 (19.08.98) on the reconstruction of the sewerage collector in the 40-richchya Zhovtnya prospect. The goal is the prevention of the damage situation and of the pollution of the environment by sewage waters. In the order the decision of the tender committee on choose of the reconstruction technology is confirmed. The technology has been proposed by the “Per Aarsleff A/C” Company.
Talks have taken place between the Ministry of the Environmental Protection, DKO “Kyivvodokanal” and the representatives of Denmark and Finland. The talks has confirmed that Danish “Per Aarsleff A/C” Company is ready for implement the works on the collector reconstruction and for termination of the whole complex of works on the collector 5,3 km during 14 months. The Company will do it by the guarantee of regular financial providing.
After implementing the works on the collector reconstruction (40-richchya Zivtnya prospect), all the complex of the Danish company technical equipment, by the contract clause, will become the property of DKO “Kyivvodokanal”. It will be used further at implement of such a work on sewerage collectors in Kyiv and other cities of Ukraine.
Memorandum on the mutual understanding between the Government of Ukraine and Government of Netherlands was signed 20 December 1996. It determine that in the energy reserving and environment protection spheres Ukrainian and Netherlands sides will carry out projects that will work together.
In September 1998 the Government of Ukraine and the Government of Netherlands signed the Protocol on Intentions. It initiates a Project for a joint implement named by “Decrease of hotbed gas disposal by implementing of the unaerobic purification technology of sewage waters at the Yagotin sugar -house”. The Project (PSO 97/UK/4/5) was registered at the National Agency of Reconstruction and European Integration in 17.02.98 (No. 352).
The Project is a very important for Ukraine because it shows the capacities of contemporary unaerobic biological technology for sewage waters purification at enterprises of food industry. The technology also helps to significant decrease of hotbed gas disposals, to the more significant electric energy economy than the functioning now ways of sewage waters purification with active silting.
The significance of the Project is out of the Yagotin sugar –house as well as the sugar sphere as a whole, because the necessity of implementing the effective technologies of sewage waters purification at enterprises is one of the priority directions and goals of the National Program. The results of the Project in case of its implement will have a significant nature protection effect and will help to improvement of the ecological situation of the Dnipro river and its tributaries.
In accordance with the conditions of joint implement of the Project investment of the Netherlands side will be 2,2 million guilders (1,1 million dollars USA). The enterprise recipient finances 25 per cent from the total value that is equal to near 5 hundred thousand hryvna.
The Ministry of the Environmental Safety has provided a partial financing for designing, building and assembly works from the Ukrainian side at the expense of the State Environmental Protection Fund. The Ministry of Agricultural Complex of Ukraine proposed to increase the funds of the “Investment activities of the Ministry of Agriculture Industry of Ukraine in 1999” part. The funds that valued 5 hundred thousand gryvna are set aside for the Yagotin sugar –house.
The main directions of the Ministry of the Environmental Safety within making more active the international cooperation in the Dnipro river Basin in 1999 are the following: