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Up Projects GRID in Ukraine Project GRID-Kiev Agreement(Project)


Executive Summary

Tangible Output Products of regular project activities of GRID-KIEV

1. Applicants, Duration of the Project:

2. Legislative Authority

3. Background and Principal Objectives of the Project:

4. Institutional Framework

5. Outputs

6. Activities

Appendix 1: Potential international cooperating programs

Appendix 2: Potential cooperating organizations in Ukraine

Appendix 3: Main Mutual Obligations UNEP - MEPNS, as input to agreement to establish GRID Kiev:

Appendix 4: Full outputs results of a National Environmental Information Center –GRID-Kiev

Appendix 5: References


Implementation and proposed action for Establishment of a UNEP/GRID-compatible National Environmental Information Network Center (GRID-Kiev) in Ukraine

Executive Summary

The proposed environmental information center (GRID-Kiev) is expected to considerably improve access to environmental information for decision-making in Ukraine. At the end of the three-year implementation phase, a fully operational unit, specialized in popularizing environmental information using information technology (electronic state-of-the-environment reports, environmental Internet pages, GIS) will exist. The GRID center will provide information to users in Ukraine and the world it will also be instrumental to meet international needs (Global and European Assessment, international environmental conventions).
The center is expected to be operational on a sustainable financial base after termination of the project. Emphasis is put on creating a diverse funding pattern, with the majority of income from sources outside the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine. The project preparation phase has shown the feasibility of operating GRID-Kyiv through a project portfolio funded through national and international sources.

Tangible Output Products of regular project activities of GRID-KIEV

1. Easily understandable visual environmental information products, such as national, regional and urban State-of-the-Environment (SoE) reports available to decision-makers and the general public in Ukraine and abroad through hardcopies and computerized media (accessible on the WWW).

2. Aggregated, national-level spatial and tabular environmental databases, accessible to users in Ukraine and the international community.

3. Publication of reports and data products resulting from inter-sectoral and trans-boundary cooperation projects (spatial database for water supply and wastewater treatment systems, application of GIS tools for the management of protected areas, integrated data management for the Black Sea Coastal Zone, land use, environmental health, etc.).

4. Publication of training material and documentation on data and information management methodologies.

5. Development of guidelines for management of national environmental information.

6. Trained personnel in environmental information management and GIS.


1. Applicants, Duration of the Project:

Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine (MEPNS), Information Responsible Center (IRC), State Environmental Monitoring Department, the Group of information technologies Mr. Anatol Shmurak, head of information technology group of MEPNS, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine Khreshatyk 5, Kiev 252001, Ukraine, tel. 044-2287343, fax 044-2298050,


UNEP/GRID-Arendal, TK-Senteret, Longum Park, P.O. Box 1602, Myrene, N-4801 Arendal, Norway represented through the Uppsala Office Mr. Bertil Hagerhall, Programme Coordinator, P.O. Box 2158, SE-750 02 Uppsala, Sweden. Tel. +46 18 60 11 14, Fax: +46 18 12 49 45,


The project implementation will take place under UNEP/GRID-Arendal supervision, in close cooperation with Ukrainian Government represented by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine with the donors and with the responsible institutions, and also with other internal and international initiatives in environmental information area.

2. Legislative Authority

The project is based upon and harmonized with the following international and national initiatives:

1. Article of New Constitution devoted to access of environmental information to the citizens.

2. Ukrainian Law on Environmental Protection, June 25, 1991.

3. Agenda 21, Chapter 40 statements on Information for Decision-Making, Rio de Janeiro 1992.

4. Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, Aarhus, 1998.

5. The UNEP integrated programme for environmental information networking

3. Background and Principal Objectives of the Project:

The Ukrainian Government, through the Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety, have expressed interest in establishing a national GRID Center in Kiev as a part of their national strategy for environment monitoring and protection and resource management. Ukraine has participated in the ENRIN programme since 1995 following long-term involvement with UNEP and GRID starting in 1988. A feasibility study for the establishment of GRID-Kiev funded by UNEP has been completed in 1996.

The ENRIN focal point for Ukraine has taken an active role in UNEP's and other international environmental information activities, such as organizing a national ENRIN seminar in Kiev in 1996, participating in the UNEP/OECD seminars in Moscow in 1995, the ENRIN focal point meeting in Warsaw in 1995, the Internet Seminar in Arendal and BALLERINA workshop in Stockholm in 1996, the BALLERINA conference in Riga in 1997 and the Rovaniemi meeting in 1998.

The SoE Ukraine on the Internet was launched in 1996 and was updated and published on CD-ROM for the Aarhus conference in 1998.

The main objectives of the establishment of a UNEP/GRID-compatible network Center in Ukraine are to:


1. Develop capacities of the national environmental information network in Ukraine by providing access to environmental meta-databases and aggregated information required for efficient national environmental management, decision-making, raising public awareness through dissemination of environmental information, provision of reliable and easily readable data for decision-makers (President Administration, Supreme Rada environmental commissions, Cabinet of Ministers, Ministries), planners responsible for environmental management in Ukraine (Economic Department of MEPNS, other ministries), international organizations (WORLD BANK, OECD, UNEP, EU, USAID, IDRC and others), scientists (Ukrainian and international institutions) and general public (through mass-media, TV, NGO, schools).

2. Contribute to improved protection and management of the environment in Ukraine, GRID-Kiev should be an integral part of State Environmental Monitoring Department of MEPNS and help to establish the National Information Responsible Center (NIRC) of the MEPNS of Ukraine, to be a information system who helps the of Governmental Information Analytical System of Emergency Situations (UIAS NS).

3. Improve international links and ensure compatibility with the EU environmental activities (EEA-EIONET). EU/TACIS, World Bank, GEF, OECD etc. to provide necessary environmental information for support of international activities and the development of the National Environmental Action Plans, dealing with environmental issues of transboundary and global concern. This includes the regional programs for the Black Sea, the Dnieper, Dniester, Danube and others.

4. Join the international environmental networks of UNEP and the EEA. Cooperate closely and use the expertise of other hubs in the UNEP network. It is expected that GRID-Kiev will play an active role in sub-regional networking, focusing on strengthening the national capacities in Belarus and Moldova. It is also anticipated that it will play a relevant role in the relation between the Ukraine and the European Environmental Agency (EEA) and its information networks (EIONET).

5. Enable access of Ukrainian institutions to environmental databases held by UNEP, OECD, the EU and international organization.

6. Encourage and enable Ukrainian government and other responsible institutions to disseminate environmental information to domestic and international users according to the new constitutional article and the ‘Aarhus’ convention on access to environmental information for public participation.

7. Improve sub-national (oblast-level) capacities for the generation, access to and use of environmental data and information.

4. Institutional Framework

In accordance with Decree of President of Ukraine of 13 March 1999 ¹ 250/99, structure of government organs was changed. Key ministries will coordinate activity of many government organs. In particular, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety will coordinate activities of the State Administration of Nuclear Regulation; State Commission for Test and Registration of Fertilizers, Means for Plant Protection and Growth Regulation; Committee for Water Management; Committee on Geology and Bowels Use; Committee for Hydrometeorology. This considerably extends duties and informational capacities of the Ministry and can promote an efficiency of implementing the State environmental policy.

The institutional framework has been developed in a participatory process during the assessment and feasibility phase of the project, it is based upon:

- Regular consultations and discussions of UNEP with the MEPNS and various partner institutions in Ukraine.

- Recommendations of the National Workshop on Environmental Information systems conducted in January 1996;

- Conclusions of the an Assessment Report on Environmental Information prepared and published in September 1995;

- Experience of existing UNEP/GRID centers working under governmental umbrella in USA, Canada, Hungary and Georgia;

The project will be implemented by the MEPNS in close cooperation with UNEP/GRID-Arendal and its Uppsala office as the project coordinator. The focal point in Ukraine will be IRC of MEPNS. The Ministry will appoint a Project Manager who will also act as facility manager for the GRID-Kiev Center in Ukraine. The Ministry also will nominate 5-6 specialists from MEPNS departments to participate in GRID-Kiev work in special areas, which will have key importance for center's activity.

GRID-Kiev will have technical expertise in the following areas: GIS analysis, Database Management, LAN management, environmental monitoring network, global computer networks, and Internet WWW SoE preparation. This expertise will be complemented by adequate scientific and environmental skills by the staff and other experts involved in projects.

The main activities of the center will be carried out under two types of financial and organizational set-up:

(1) Core activities: Networking with national and international institutions, maintenance of data and metadatabase, a basic information service and operational computer facilities, initially funded under this project.

(2) Project activities: The majority of GRID-Kiev's activities will be conducted as projects funded by sources in Ukraine and abroad.

An advisory board appointed by the Ministry, UNEP, donors and other involved organizations will be set up in order to provide strategic guidance to the information network and GRID-Kiev activities. Other institutions in Ukraine will be involved in the project with various functions: (i) as participants of sub-projects, (ii) sources and distributors of information, (iii) real and potential users (decision-makers).

A list of potential cooperation partners is attached in the appendix 1 and 2:

5. Outputs

The full outputs of a National Environmental Information Center –GRID-Kiev are attached in Appendix 4.

By the end of the project it is expected, that Ukraine will have an operational, internationally compatible National Environmental Information Network, consisting of trained personnel with necessary experience, state-of-the-art equipment and a sound legal, institutional and economic base for the generation and dissemination of environmental information relevant to decision-making and general public.

Being a node of UNEP/GRID system, the GRID-Kiev will exchange on mutual basis relevant data, information and experience with other nodes of the network and international environmental organizations and programs.

The core issues of the proposed agreement between UNEP and MEPNS are attached in Appendix 3.

Components of GRID-Kiev will be the following:


Integrated National Environmental GIS

With international and state codes, or classified objects, such as - points of observations of different ministries and institutions, points of sampling, state oblasts and sub-oblasts, rivers, cities, roads, railroads, points of sources of pollution (water, air and grounds), environmentally sensibility territories, and other.



Connected with codes in National Environmental GIS, database of environmental specialists in Ukraine and neighboring countries Meta-databases, of existing environmental databases and institutions of the Ukraine.


State-of-the Environment (SoE) Information

Regular production of official (practically annual) SoE reports

Special thematic or regional reports,

Atlases of thematic environmental maps,


National Environmental Information Network with 25 regional links,

Based on oblast offices of MEPNS with oblast element of Environmental GIS, which will provide receiving and dissemination of environmental information on the local level by E-mail or Internet.


Use of outputs

The main beneficiaries will be the MEPNS and other responsible institutions. Popular output products (such as National SoE Report) will be targeted at wide user community in order to raise the public awareness of environmental issues in the country.

International community will benefit from the improved access to national environmental data and information. Direct beneficiaries will be the State-of-Environment for Europe process (EEA-Dobris) and the UNEP global reporting activities (GEO, SoE 2002)

Decision-makers (Government, experts, and institutions) will receive information directly by means of WWW or by e-mail.

Regular production of GIS-based State of the Environment report for Ukraine and making it accessible to a wide audience, including schools and the general public.


6. Activities

A division of responsibilities between project coordination (implemented by UNEP/GRID-Arendal), core center establishment activities (implemented by MEPNS Ukraine) and project activities (implemented by consultants supervised by MEPNS Ukraine) has been made. A detailed workplan will be elaborated at project start-up.


Project coordination and international cooperation

- Administration of the foreign grants and supervision of the establishment of the GRID-Kiev-center.

- Advising on the organizational and institutional framework and inter-sectorial co-operation in connection with the establishment of a Ukrainian national environmental information network (UNEIN).

- Coordination of training, managerial and technical assistance, responsible for periodical reporting to the donors;

- Ensuring compatibility of the UNEIN databases and the meta-databases with UNEP EU (EEA), Governmental (UIAS NS) standards and requirements.

- Strengthening international communication and co-operation.


Center Establishment activities

Assistance to the core institution in establishing routines for project management and control, budgeting, accounting etc.

Establishment of Internet SoE report in Ukraine. Guidance on output production and reporting.

Sectoral competence to assist in activities

Managerial and technical advice and training is expected to be provided by institutions identified by donors, the project coordinator (UNEP/GRID) and the MEPNS.

Design and implementation a training programme with regular interventions to ensure the successful and sustainable implementation of the project.

Assist the core unit at the MEPNS in organizing different workshops. Practical organization of the training. Both in-country training either on-the-job or visits to and from Ukraine.

Basic information service

Operate and maintain computer facilities.


Project Activities

The main objectives of the project will be achieved by implementing the following parts or sub-projects. All of them need a certain level of independence, but all of them are very important parts of the whole project - (GRID-Kiev). MEPNS and UNEP have set current priorities; the project has been designed to accommodated donor interests as well.


1 Creation Ukrainian National Environmental Information Network with oblasts (UNEIN)

As a first step it is planned to use for this task FreeNet - UN e-mail network in Ukraine

(If it will be possible, it is most suitable to organize an own Ministerial network, but it will require big expenses, and can be realized later (see activity 7)

The main task of this sub-project is to create and to organize a nation-wide e-mail network with state oblast environmental offices and oblastal NGOs with special rules of interchange environmental information and corresponding responsibility for information


1. Short investigation of real situation in oblasts.

2. Installation the software in all oblasts

3. Seminar in Kiev to teach employees from oblasts to work with Internet (one week).

4. Order or regulation about rules of interchange of environmental information and data form and formats, with nomination the responsible persons in Ministry on center and oblasts.

5. Experimental period of work this network.


2 Creation and development of Ukrainian integrated national Environmental GIS (UEGIS)

Establishing environmental GIS (Geographical Information System) at the national level with similar parts in all oblasts


1. Preparation of the base map (scale 1:500 000) with necessary number of layers.

2. Dissemination of parts of the base map to oblasts for testing period

3. Preparation of methodology for adding new objects, layers, according to following themes: atmospheric air, surface water, ground water, radioactive contamination, waste deposition, forestry, soils, human health and other layers and attributes, also connected with priorities of Ukrainian environmental policy, GRID standards and donor propositions.

4. Preparation of Ukrainian-Russian-English data dictionaries of layers and attributes, according to GRID donors recommendations for compatibility and necessity of implementation in different oblasts of Ukraine.

5. Preparation of project documentation on the order and procedures of maintenance and exploitation the UEGIS by central and oblast bodies.

6. A seminar aimed at training of employees from oblast and institutions to work with GIS and related software to load-receive-transform information.

7. Order or regulation about rules of interchange and keeping of the environmental information and data forms and formats, with nomination the responsible persons in Ministry in the center and oblasts.

8. Experimental period of work and operation of the UEGIS.


3 System of maintenance the Ukrainian meta-database of experts, institutions, databases in environmental area (UEMDB)

This sub-project should be carried out in close cooperation with Kiev CIESIN (currently under umbrella of the UNDP Office in Kiev) information program and INFOTERRA project (currently under umbrella of the Ukrainian Institute of Scientific-Technical and Economic Information). The main difference between 3 projects is more strong structural approach of GRID databases comparing to softer but wider approaches of CIESIN and INFOTERRA, based on the bibliographic lists of terms.

As an example of meta-information about digital maps may serve documentation of GIS coverages for the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin, prepared by UNEP/GRID-Arendal.

Steps of the sub-project:

1. A meeting of representatives of GRID, INFOTERRA and CIESIN in Kiev, which will prepare a draft plan of cooperative activities, initial discussion of formats for information interchange.

2. Preparing a common plan for the adoption by central headquarters of GRID, INFOTERRA and CIESIN, and proposed formats of interchanged information.

3. Adoption of the common plan by the central headquarters of GRID, INFOTERRA and CIESIN.

4. Seminar and training with the aim to find bottlenecks and difficulties of cooperation

5. Preparation of Memorandum on cooperation of GRID, INFOTERRA and CIESIN in Kiev.

6. Testing period of mutual work, including the work with real and potential sources of information


4 Systematic preparation of Ukrainian Internet SoE (UISoE)

System of routines, rules, annual production of digital versions of the "National Report on the state of the Environment in Ukraine" for the following priority sectors:

Atmospheric air, surface water, ground water, radioactive contamination, waste deposition, forestry, soils, human health, and other. (See p. 3 of UEGIS)

Steps of sub-project:

1. Preparation the methodology according ENRIN, UNEP and EC standards,

2. Projecting and agreeing with all participants’ routines, rules and formats for this procedures.

3. Experimental work (as example must be creation of the SoE 95, we have agreements about further report. UN-Kiev WWW, Grid-Arendal WWW, GRID-Geneva WWW gives allowance to allocate this report on their WWW pages)

4. On the base stage 2 and 3 regulations for the annual generation of SoE of Ukraine will be created.

5. Adaptation on the basis of the Ministry of the procedures and activity by the order.


Appendix 1: Potential international cooperating programs


EU, EEA and related programs (EIONET, EU SoE assessments, TACIS)

International Environmental Conventions (Biodiversity, Climate Change etc.)

Information management activities of UN/ECE, UNDP, OECD, WHO, the World Bank

ENREP/ENDOC. Environmental research projects/environmental information and document centers (CEC)

ISLSCP (International satellite land surface climatology project


International Geosphere-Biosphere Program( initiated by the Swedish Academy of Sciences)

IGBP-DIS (data and information systems).

Infohydro (hydrological information referral service) (WMO)

World Climate Programme (WMO/ICSU/UNEP/UNESCO);


Appendix 2: Potential cooperating organizations in Ukraine

Central governmental institutions

Administration of President of Ukraine,

Commission on Nuclear Policy and Environmental Safety,

Commission on Environmental Policy of the Supreme Rada,

Commission on the Chernobyl Disaster of the Supreme Rada,

Commission on Nuclear Policy and Safety of the Supreme Rada,

Division of Technogenic Safety and Population Defense of the Cabinet of Ministers,

Commission on Environmental Conditions of Dnipro River and Drinking water quality of the Cabinet of Ministers,

Main State Environmental Inspectorate of MEPNS,

State Committee on Land Resources,

Committee on Geology and Mineral Resources,

Ministry of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe,

Ministry of Health Protection,

Ministry of Industrial Policy,

State Committee of Statistics,

Committee for Water Management,

State Committee of Forestry,

Committee for Hydrometeorology (Hydromet),

Main Administration of Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastres,

State Committee of Telecommunications and Informatization,

State Committee on Science,

National Space Agency of Ukraine,


Educational and research institutions

Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute of Hydromet,

Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Forestry,

Ukrainian Scientific Center of Marine Ecology of MEPNS,

Ukrainian Scientific Center of Protection of Waters of MEPNS,

Ukrainian Scientific Center of Technical Ecology of MEPNS,

National University of Ukraine (Department of Geography, Environmental School, Department of Geology)

Lviv State University,

Chernivtsi State University,

National University Kiev-Mohyla Academy,

Department of Aerophotogeodesy and Geoinformation Technologies of Kiev Institute of Ukrainian Air Forces,

Scientific Hygiene Center,

Ukrainian research institute "Agroresources",

Ukrainian Institute of Scientific-Technical and Economic Information,

Institute of Biology of Southern Seas,

Institute of Ecology of the National EcoCentre of Ukraine,

Academy of Science of Ukraine,

Institute of Geography, Palladin Institute of Biochemistry,

Kholodny Inst. of Botany, Institute of Hydrobiology,

Shmalghauzen Institute of Zoology,

Institute of the Carpathian Ecology,

Institute of Cybernetics (Dept. of Mathematical Models in Ecology, Dept. of Mathematical Modeling of Water Systems),

Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering,

Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics,

Institute of Sociology,

Institute of Colloid Chemistry and Water Chemistry



Ukrainian Environmental Association "Zeleny Svit",

Ukrainian Environmental Academy of Science,


Union for Salvation from Chernobyl,



Private sector

Intelligent Systems,

Qvasar Mikro,

Topaz INFO


Appendix 3: Main Mutual Obligations UNEP - MEPNS, as input to agreement to establish GRID Kiev:

1. Being a node of UNEP/GRID system, the GRID-Kiev will exchange on mutual basis relevant data, information and experience with other nodes of the network and international environmental organizations and programs.

GRID-Kiev will in a pro-active way disseminate environmental datasets and information made available by UNEP to oblastal and national users (decision makers, planners, scientists, schools, media, etc.) on request, and in line with GRID data policy;

UNEP will provide, at no cost to the center, relevant scientific and technical information and documentation;

GRID-Kiev will assist the UNEP in the identification and/or development of datasets/indicators required for the production of comprehensive oblastal and global environmental assessments, and forecasts of the impact of alternative policy/management scenarios.

GRID-Kiev will maintain or create a data catalogue as necessary for the given area of responsibility on environmental datasets, in accordance with international Meta-database guidelines, and actively record and make available to the GRID network information on the location, content and availability of new datasets generated concerning the country, oblast or special thematic interests of the center;

2. GRID-Kiev is to be granted by the government an access to all non-restricted national environmental datasets from Ukrainian governmental and other institutions concerned with environmental protection and to provide UNEP with access to this data and information according to the GRID guidelines for information exchange between GRID centers. The data and meta-data services provided by the GRID Kiev are to be in compliance with the GRID standards described in the relevant policy documents on data management and at no cost to UNEP.

GRID-Kiev will provide access, and recommend where necessary the appropriate national institutional framework, to make to all relevant non-restricted oblastal, thematic and national data sets and information available to the GRID network;

3. GRID-Kiev will regularly prepare digital versions of reports on the State of the Environment to be submitted to the higher governmental and legislative bodies, such as Administration of the President, the Cabinet of Ministers and relevant Commissions of the Supreme Rada.

4. Aggregated information on the state of the environment and natural resources is available to governmental, academic and research institutions and the NGOs. However, information search, preparation of specialized reports, assessments and research activities, which require additional costs (labor, equipment) can be ordered by other institutions at a certain price covering these expenses.

5. Any international, national organizations or NGOs engaged in environmental protection and natural resources management are encouraged to contact the GRID-Kiev and to participate in its activities. ntioned activities


Appendix 4: Full outputs results of a National Environmental Information Center –GRID-Kiev

Direction of activity


Core (national):



Capacity Building


Popularized indicator-based state-of-the-environment reports (electronic and paper) approximating international standards

Cooperation with National Government, International organizations, NGOs and the private Sector

National and sub-national regional Workshops

State of Environment (SoE) on Internet

methodology for counting

Ecological indicators

Strengthening MEPNS on information technology

Establishing Operational GRID Node

GIS and RC capabilities

SoE of Ukraine, sub-national regions, cities in Internet SoE, on CD-ROMs hardcopy versions

Databases and Catalogues of Data sources

Catalogue of environmental data and institutions in the country

Metadatabases, catalogs on Internet and CD

Metadatabases looking and form fulfilling

Dissemination Information about Ukrainian and foreign ecological organizations

Dissemination the information with different ecological metadatabases

Assistance to national environmental information initiatives

as information storage and methodological center

GIS, Cartography

Development and Project management

Internet and WWW service

The Internet library of prepared environmental articles, maps, graphics,



Inputs to regional environmental bodies, initiatives and conventions.

Regional workshops in Ukraine

for regional specialist

(for example Moldova, Belarus) on GIS, RS, and ecological cartography

Dissemination Information about regional environmental bodies, initiatives and conventions

data, maps, graphics, Internet support)

Inputs to Pan-European SoE reporting on a regular basis

Assist to connect with verified sources of information and responsible agencies

form fulfilling

methodology for counting

Pan Europe Ecological indicators


the data, maps and reports



Inputs to global state-of-the-environment reports (e.g. Rio + 10, UNEP-GEO)

Assist to connect with verified sources of information and responsible agencies

form fulfilling

methodology for counting

global Ecological indicators

Dissemination Information about global reports

The Ukrainian part of data

Assist in the streamlining and popularization of reporting to the global conventions

Assist to connect with verified information sources and responsible agencies


Dissemination Information about global conventions

Data, maps and Internet products on Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Ozone and others.

Appendix 5: References

1. Law "On the protection of the Natural Environment", 25 June, 1991.

2. Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of 23 September 1993, N785, "On the state monitoring of the natural environment".

3. Provisions on the Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine, endorsed by the Edict of the President of Ukraine of 10 February 1995, N 120/95.

4. Agenda 21, Chapter 40 "Information for decision-makers", Report of the United Nations conference on environment and development, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992.

5. Simonett, O.: Environment and Natural Resource Information Networks. - Countries with Economies in Transition in Central and Eastern Europe - Information Leaflet, 6 pp.

6. UNDP Human Development Report 1995.

7. National Report on the State of Environment in Ukraine in 1993, Ukrainian, Rayevsky Publishers, ISBN-5-7707-6967-X, 1994.

8. Ukraine Environmental Directory, Prepared by EPT Project, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova Regional Office, April 1995

9. Andrey V. Semichaevsky, Environmental Information Systems in Ukraine. Assessment report

10. National Report on the State of Environment in Ukraine in 1994 (Report to the Supreme Rada)

11 Short English Version of NR 1994 - Ukrainian Environment Facts and figures 94-95, ISBN 966-7016-00-5, Kiev, 1996.

12. Feasibility Study for the Establishment of a UNEP/GRID -compatible Environmental Information Network in Hungary, Csaba Nemes, UNEP/EAP TR/95-05 GA/205024-95/8, ISBN 92-807-1516-X. 1995 UNEP.

13. Otto Simonett, Dan Claasen, Nickolai Denisov, Claudia Heberlein, The Environmental and Natural Resources Information Network (ENRIN) in Central and Eastern Europe and NIS. GRID-Arendal, Occasional Papers 1998